Total cholesterol

Total cholesterol is the sum of all circulating cholesterol. In the fasting state, almost all circulating cholesterol is produced by the liver. Hepatic dysfunction and diseases that impair intestinal absorption can reduce blood cholesterol concentrations. Total cholesterol is most reliably measured from a fasting sample.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Hypothyroidism
– Cushing’s disease
– Biliary obstruction
– Gall bladder mucocele
– Certain drugs: e.g. glucocorticoids
– Nephrotic syndrome
– Pancreatitis
– Idiopathic hyperlipidemia/hypercholesterolemia
– Obesity

Decreased concentrations

– Liver failure
– Maldigestion/malabsorption
– Pancreatic insufficiency
– Protein-losing enteropathy
– Addison’s disease

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Xenoulis, P. G. & Steiner, J. M. Canine hyperlipidaemia. J. Small Anim. Pract. 56, 595–605 (2015).
Danielsson, B., Ekman, R., Johansson, B. G. & Petersson, B. G. Plasma lipoprotein changes in experimental cholestasis in the dog. Clin. Chim. Acta. 80, 157–170 (1977).
Littman, M. P., Dambach, D. M., Vaden, S. L. & Giger, U. Familial protein-losing enteropathy and protein-losing nephropathy in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers: 222 cases (1983-1997). J. Vet. Intern. Med. 14, 68–80 (2000).

 

HDL cholesterol

HDL cholesterol refers to the proportion of circulating cholesterol that is transported inside HDL particles. HDL is responsible for transporting cholesterol away from tissues. The lower risk of atherosclerosis in dogs compared to humans is due to the fact, that in many hyperlipidemic states in humans, cholesterol is transferred from HDL particles to LDL and VLDL particles. In similar disease states in dogs, cholesterol accumulates in HDL-particles, creating unique large, cholesterol-rich HDL particles. These large cholesterol-rich HDL particles are less atherogenic than VLDL and LDL particles. In humans, HDL cholesterol has been found to be negatively correlated with the inflammatory status. This might be true in dogs, too, since low HDL cholesterol has been associated with e.g. parvoviral infection, leishmania and babesiosis and its usability as a negative inflammatory marker in the monitoring of these diseases is being investigated.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Hypothyroidism
– Idiopathic hypercholesterolemia

Decreased concentrations:

– Pancreatitis
– Lymphoma
– Enteritis
– Babesiosis
– Leishmania
– Inflammatory conditions

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Seage, E. C., Drobatz, K. J. & Hess, R. S. Spectrophotometry and Ultracentrifugation for Measurement of Plasma Lipids in Dogs with Diabetes Mellitus. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 32, 93–98 (2018).
Barrie, J., Watson, T. D. G., Stear, M. J. & Nash, A. S. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations in the dog: The effects of age, breed, gender and endocrine disease. J. Small Anim. Pract. 34, 507–512 (1993).
Sato, K., Agoh, H., Kaneshige, T., Hikasa, Y. & Kagota, K. Hypercholesterolemia in Shetland sheepdogs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62, 1297–1301 (2000).
Chikamune, T., Katamoto, H., Nomura, K. & Ohashi, F. Lipoprotein profile in canine pancreatitis induced with oleic acid. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60, 413–421 (1998).
Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994).
Yilmaz, Z. & Senturk, S. Characterisation of lipid profiles in dogs with parvoviral enteritis. J. Small Anim. Pract. 48, 643–650 (2007).
Kocaturk, M. et al. Inflammatory and oxidative biomarkers of disease severity in dogs with parvoviral enteritis. J. Small Anim. Pract. 56, 119–124 (2015).
Mrljak, V. et al. Serum concentrations of eicosanoids and lipids in dogs naturally infected with Babesia canis. Vet. Parasitol. 201, 24–30 (2014).
Ibba, F., Rossi, G., Meazzi, S., Giordano, A. & Paltrinieri, S. Serum concentration of high density lipoproteins (HDLs) in leishmaniotic dogs. Res. Vet. Sci. 98, 89–91 (2015).
Nieto, C. G. et al. Changes in the plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein fractions in dogs infected with Leishmania infantum. Vet. Parasitol. 44, 175–182 (1992).
Khovidhunkit, W. et al. Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host. J. Lipid Res. 45, 1169–1196 (2004).

 

LDL cholesterol

LDL cholesterol refers to the proportion of circulating cholesterol that is transported within LDL particles. LDL transports cholesterol into tissues. Many hypercholesterolemic conditions affect LDL cholesterol concentrations.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Pancreatitis
– Nephrotic syndrome
– Leishmania
– Hypothyroidism
– Cushing’s disease
– Biliary obstruction
– Idiopathic hypercholesterolemia

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Danielsson, B., Ekman, R., Johansson, B. G. & Petersson, B. G. Plasma lipoprotein changes in experimental cholestasis in the dog. Clin. Chim. Acta. 80, 157–170 (1977).
Seage, E. C., Drobatz, K. J. & Hess, R. S. Spectrophotometry and Ultracentrifugation for Measurement of Plasma Lipids in Dogs with Diabetes Mellitus. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 32, 93–98 (2018).
Barrie, J., Watson, T. D. G., Stear, M. J. & Nash, A. S. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations in the dog: The effects of age, breed, gender and endocrine disease. J. Small Anim. Pract. 34, 507–512 (1993).
Sato, K., Agoh, H., Kaneshige, T., Hikasa, Y. & Kagota, K. Hypercholesterolemia in Shetland sheepdogs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62, 1297–1301 (2000).
Chikamune, T., Katamoto, H., Nomura, K. & Ohashi, F. Lipoprotein profile in canine pancreatitis induced with oleic acid. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60, 413–421 (1998).
Nieto, C. G. et al. Changes in the plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoprotein fractions in dogs  infected with Leishmania infantum. Vet. Parasitol. 44, 175–182 (1992).
Jeusette, I. et al. Hypercholesterolaemia in a family of rough collie dogs. J. Small Anim. Pract. 45, 319–324 (2004).

 

VLDL cholesterol

VLDL cholesterol measures the proportion of circulating cholesterol that is transported within VLDL particles and chylomicrons. VLDL particles are formed in the liver and they transport triglycerides to muscle and adipose tissue for use and storage. Various hyperlipidemic conditions may increase the concentration of VLDL cholesterol.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Pancreatitis
– Cushing’s disease
– Hypothyroidism
– Idiopathic hypercholesterolemia
– Lymphoma
– Obesity
– Eating before blood sampling

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Xenoulis, P. G. & Steiner, J. M. Canine hyperlipidaemia. J. Small Anim. Pract. 56, 595–605 (2015).
Seage, E. C., Drobatz, K. J. & Hess, R. S. Spectrophotometry and Ultracentrifugation for Measurement of Plasma Lipids in Dogs with Diabetes Mellitus. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 32, 93–98 (2018).
Barrie, J., Watson, T. D. G., Stear, M. J. & Nash, A. S. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein concentrations in the dog: The effects of age, breed, gender and endocrine disease. J. Small Anim. Pract. 34, 507–512 (1993).
Sato, K., Agoh, H., Kaneshige, T., Hikasa, Y. & Kagota, K. Hypercholesterolemia in Shetland sheepdogs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 62, 1297–1301 (2000).
Chikamune, T., Katamoto, H., Nomura, K. & Ohashi, F. Lipoprotein profile in canine pancreatitis induced with oleic acid. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60, 413–421 (1998).
Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994).
Jeusette, I. et al. Hypercholesterolaemia in a family of rough collie dogs. J. Small Anim. Pract. 45, 319–324 (2004).
Jerico, M. M. et al. Chromatographic analysis of lipid fractions in healthy dogs and dogs with obesity or hyperadrenocorticism. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21, 203–207 (2009).
Silva, N. L. T. et al. Post-prandial lipemia and glycemia in dogs fed with industrialized pet food. Comp. Clin. Path. 28, 253–258 (2019).
Jeusette, I. C., Lhoest, E. T., Istasse, L. P. & Diez, M. O. Influence of obesity on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66, 81–86 (2005).
Bailhache, E. et al. Lipoproteins abnormalities in obese insulin-resistant dogs. Metabolism. 52, 559–564 (2003).

 

 

Esterified cholesterol

Esterified cholesterol refers to the proportion of circulating cholesterol in the esterified form. Esterified cholesterol is the transport form of cholesterol in lipoprotein particles. The majority of circulating cholesterol is in the esterified form. Diseases affecting the ratio of esterified to free cholesterol have not yet been studied in dogs.

 

Free cholesterol

Free cholesterol means the proportion of circulating cholesterol that is not in esterified form. Free cholesterol is only seen on the outer surface of the lipoprotein particles. By converting free cholesterol into esterified cholesterol, more cholesterol can be packed into lipoprotein particles. Diseases affecting the ratio of esterified to free cholesterol have not yet been studied in dogs.