Triglycerides

Triglycerides serve as cellular energy sources and as a form of fatty acid storage. Hypertriglyceridemia can be caused by impaired lipid removal, excess lipid formation or increased use of fatty acid stores. Eating increases blood triglyceride concentrations, which is why diagnostic triglyceride measurements should be done only from properly fasted dogs.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Vacuolar hepatopathy
– Hypothyroidism
– Cushing’s disease
– Pancreatitis
– Biliary obstruction
– Idiopathic hyperlipidemia
– Nephrotic syndrome
– Lymphoma
– Inflammatory conditions
– Certain drugs: e.g. glucocorticoids
– Obesity
– Eating before blood sampling

Decreased concentrations

– Protein-losing enteropathy
– Pancreatic insufficiency

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Xenoulis, P. G. & Steiner, J. M. Canine hyperlipidaemia. J. Small Anim. Pract. 56, 595–605 (2015).
Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994).
Yilmaz, Z. & Senturk, S. Characterisation of lipid profiles in dogs with parvoviral enteritis. J. Small Anim. Pract. 48, 643–650 (2007).
Khovidhunkit, W. et al. Effects of infection and inflammation on lipid and lipoprotein metabolism: mechanisms and consequences to the host. J. Lipid Res. 45, 1169–1196 (2004).
Jeusette, I. C., Lhoest, E. T., Istasse, L. P. & Diez, M. O. Influence of obesity on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66, 81–86 (2005).
Whitney, M. S., Boon, G. D., Rebar, A. H., Story, J. A. & Bottoms, G. D. Ultracentrifugal and electrophoretic characteristics of the plasma lipoproteins of miniature schnauzer dogs with idiopathic hyperlipoproteinemia. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 7, 253–260 (1993).
Chikamune, T., Katamoto, H., Ohashi, F. & Shimada, Y. Serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in obese dogs. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 57, 595–598 (1995).

 

HDL triglycerides  

HDL triglycerides refer to the proportion of circulating triglycerides transported within HDL particles. The main function of HDL is to transport cholesterol out of tissues, but HDL particles also contain triglycerides. The factors affecting HDL triglyceride concentrations are not yet fully known in dogs.

 

Increased concentrations

– Lymphoma

Additional information

Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994).

 

LDL triglycerides

LDL triglycerides refer to the proportion of circulating triglycerides transported within LDL particles. LDL particles are formed from VLDL particles after triglycerides are transferred to tissues. The function of LDL particles is to transport cholesterol to tissues. The factors affecting LDL triglyceride concentrations are not yet fully known in dogs.

 

Increased concentrations

– Pancreatitis
– Lymphoma

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Chikamune, T., Katamoto, H., Nomura, K. & Ohashi, F. Lipoprotein profile in canine pancreatitis induced with oleic acid. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 60, 413–421 (1998).
Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994)

 

VLDL triglycerides

VLDL triglycerides refer to the proportion of circulating triglycerides transported within VLDL particles and chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are responsible for transporting triglycerides from the small intestine to tissues after eating. VLDL particles are formed in the liver and their function is to transport triglycerides to muscles and fat tissue. Hypertriglyceridemic conditions typically result in increased concentrations of VLDL triglycerides.

 

Increased concentrations

– Diabetes mellitus
– Hypothyroidism
– Cushing’s disease
– Pancreatitis
– Nephrotic syndrome
– Lymphoma
– Obesity
– Eating before blood sampling

Additional information

Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry. (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012).
Ogilvie, G. K. et al. Alterations in lipoprotein profiles in dogs with lymphoma. J. Vet. Intern. Med. 8, 62–66 (1994).
Jerico, M. M. et al. Chromatographic analysis of lipid fractions in healthy dogs and dogs with obesity or hyperadrenocorticism. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21, 203–207 (2009).
Jeusette, I. C., Lhoest, E. T., Istasse, L. P. & Diez, M. O. Influence of obesity on plasma lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66, 81–86 (2005).
Bailhache, E. et al. Lipoproteins abnormalities in obese insulin-resistant dogs. Metabolism. 52, 559–564 (2003).